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Complement Activation Pathways

The complement system is an enzyme cascade that is a collection of blood and cell surface proteins to help the abilities of antibodies to clear pathogens from an organism. The complement system that comprises 30 different proteins, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors is an important part of the innate immune system. Some complement proteins bind to immunoglobulins or to membrane components of cells. Others are proenzymes that, when activated, cleave one or more other complement proteins and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages. The end-result of this cascade is massive amplification of the response and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex. The complement system has four major function, including lysis of infectious organisms, activation of inflammation, opsonization and immune clearance.

There are three different complement pathways, the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway. The classic complement pathway is triggered when antibody-antigen complex interact with C1-complex, which consists of C1q, two molecules of C1r, and two molecules of C1s. The C1-complex cleaves C2 and C4, which then form C3 convertase (C4b2a). C3 is then cleaved by the C3 convertase, and forms C5 convertase in association with C4b and C2a. The generation of C5 convertase is the end of the classical pathway. The lectin pathway is very similar to the classical pathway. It is stimulated when the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to mannose residues on the pathogen surface. The MBL-associated serine proteases, MASP-1, and MASP-2, are activated and cleave C4 and C2, which then form the C3 convertase as in the classical pathway. The alternative complement pathway begins with the activation of C3 and requires factor B and factor D. All three pathways merge at C3, which is then converted into C3a and C3b.

Lectin MASP MBL Pathogen Mannose C4 C2 C4a C2b C2a C4b C3 C3a C3a C3b C3 C4b C3b C3b C3b C2a Bb C5 C5b C5a CD59 C5b C6 C7 C8 C9 Lysis Membrane attack complex (MAC) C6-C9 DAF Bb Bb Ba Factor B Factor D Factor H C3b C3a Components of microbial cell surfaces C2 Pathogen C1r C1s C1 Inhibitor C1QBP C1q C4BP CD46 Factor I CR1 CR2 MCP CD46 Factor I

Complement Activation Pathways from A to Z

AKT search result
ERK search result
GRB2 search result
IL15 search result; Category: IL15
IL13RA1 search result; Category: IL13RA1
IL2 search result; Category: IL2
IL21 search result; Category: IL21
IL21R search result; Category: IL21R
IL2R search result; Category: IL2R
IL2RB search result; Category: IL2RB
IL2RG search result; Category: IL2RG
IL4 search result; Category: IL4
IL4R search result; Category: IL4R
IL7 search result; Category: IL7
IL7R search result; Category: IL7R
IL9 search result; Category: IL9
IL9R search result; Category: IL9R
JAK search result
JAK1 search result
JAK3 search result
MEK search result
mTOR search result
P13K search result
PIAS search result
PTPase search result
Raf search result
Ras search result
Shc search result
STAT search result
TYK2 search result

Thanks to Sino Biological for providing the pathways.